In 1990, a professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, Dr. Mier Stampler, revitalized interest in Dr. McCully’s homocysteine theory. He looked at the blood levels of homocysteine in 15000 physicians who were involved in a health study and he reported that even mildly elevated levels of homocysteine were directly related to an increased risk of developing heart disease. Those who had highest levels of homocysteine experienced thrice the risk of developing a heart attack when compared to those who had the lowest levels. This was the first large study that showed the possibility of homocysteine as an independent risk factor for heart disease. Then in 1995, Dr. Jacob Selhub also reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that high plasma levels of homocysteine were directly related to an increased risk of carotid artery stenosis (the narrowing of the two main arteries supplying blood to the brain). In addition to that, Dr. Jacob also noted that patients with high homocysteine levels also had low levels of folic acid and vitamin B-12 & B-6 in their bodies. Another study was conducted, The European Concerted Action Project, which indicated that the higher the homocysteine level, the greater the risk of developing heart attacks. What was once considered normal levels of homocysteine were suddenly becoming recognized as very dangerous levels. The researchers found that when they found elevated levels of homocysteine in patients who also had one or more other major risk factors such as hypertension, elevated cholesterol or smoking, the risk of vascular disease increased dramatically. The results of these clinical trials provided evidence that the lower the homocysteine levels are the better. Now the question arises, why did it take 25 years after Dr. McCully’s hypothesis on homocysteine for medical community to pay attention? Why do pharmaceutical companies promoted synthetic drugs for lowering cholesterol when it was widely known that more than half the people who suffer heart attacks have normal cholesterol levels and elevated homocysteine levels which can be lowered with Vitamin B supplements? Because there is not much money to be made in the sale of Vitamin supplements and at last I would say people don’t make profit by preventing diseases. They make a profit through medicine-treating critical advanced stages of diseases.